The Loving decision and the cases before it were a part of the civil rights movement. These are a few of the important steps that finally set the stage for legal interracial marriage.
Brown v. Board of Education (1954):
This landmark decision overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), establishing that separate educational facilities were inherently unequal.
From the Supreme Court decision:
Segregation of white and Negro children in the public schools of a State solely on the basis of race, pursuant to state laws permitting or requiring such segregation, denies to Negro children the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment - even though the physical facilities and other "tangible" factors of white and Negro schools may be equal.
Civil Rights Act of 1964:
This act outlawed discrimination in public accommodations, encouraged the desegregation of public schools, prevented discrimination by government agencies, and prohibited discrimination by employers on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin.
Here is a quote from Title II, Section 201 of the original text:
All persons shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, and privileges, advantages, and accommodations of any place of public accommodation, as defined in this section, without discrimination or segregation on the ground of race, color, religion, or national origin.